The goal of the journal is to be the world’s largest peer reviewed open access journal reporting on sustainable development research from a holistic perspective. We hope this initiative will be helpful in identifying key issues and solutions to sustainable development challenges. The journal welcomes submissions from scholars, practitioners and other researchers with a view to inclusion in one of its issues.

Journal for Worldwide Holistic Sustainable Development (JWHSD) ISSN 2409-9384 (online) and ISSN 2414-3286 (print version) is an initiative of Worldwide Holistic Sustainable Development Cooperation (wwhsdc.org). The journal focuses on social science and interdisciplinary approaches to sustainable development research. The editors welcome submissions that contribute to issues with social, environmental and economic policy implications. The ideal research the journal hopes to feature would contribute to discussions on sustainable development implementation techniques. Ideal submissions should substantially reflect the concepts of the WWHSDC that can be found at http://www.hsdni.org/about-us/our-concepts/.

The journal currently publishes articles, research reports, research notes and book reviews. Submissions should be of the highest quality. Manuscripts that have been previously published or that are under review in other journals will not be considered. Revised manuscripts that are submitted three months after the last review will be considered as new submissions. Contributors are responsible for their opinions published in this journal.


Authors should submit two documents: the title page and the manuscript. This is to allow for a transparent review system. Articles should be between 6000 and 12000 words while research reports and communication may be up to 5000 words. Manuscripts which exceed these word limits will be charged at US $5 or equivalent per page.

Please prepare manuscript according to the guidelines enclosed here. Examples are set out in coloured. Articles that do not conform to these guidelines will be sent back for correction. In extreme cases, articles can be rejected for failure to substantially conform to the guidelines.

The submission will be peer reviewed. The journal operates a double-blind peer review system. Please note that the journal does not waive the peer review process for any submission. Please prepare your title page and the manuscript according to the author guidelines provided below, and submit to tonifade@grenfell.mun.ca, kwhyte@grenfell.mun.ca or jwwhsd@gmail.com. All files should be typed and submitted as word documents with Times New Roman font 12 with 1.5 spacing. Your submission will be acknowledged within two working days.


The journal accepts both British and American English spellings. However, authors should be consistent with one. The editors encourage authors to employ active language in their writing. Except where necessary, the journal prefers simple present tense for reporting secondary sources.


The Title page contains the title of the article and the details of the author. The content should include: Title of the article, Name of author, Institutional affiliations, Contact details, and Acknowledgements (if any).

  • Title

It should appear in both the title page and the manuscript. It should be typed in upper case, bold and centralized. The title should be descriptive and as concise as possible, with every word having relevance. It should not be more than fifty words, except with the permission of the editors.

  • Name of Author

The name of the author and other self-identifying details should be in the title page. It should be typed in Title Case, bold, and centralized. First name, middle name, and last name format should be used. Do not use initials. Where there is more than one author, the authors’ names should be listed, separated by commas, with raised numbers indicating their publication order. The ampersand ‘&’ should appear before the last name.

  • Institutional Affiliations

This should also be in the title page following the name of the author. It should be typed in title case and flushed left. Please separate each institutional affiliation with a semi-colon, and add the ampersand ‘&’ before the last institutional affiliation.

  • Contact details

Please add your e-mail address and phone number. It should be italicized and should come immediately below the institutional affiliations. The phone number is voluntary.

  • Acknowledgements (if any)

Introduce the acknowledgement with a heading entitled ‘Acknowledgement.’ It should be bold, centralised, and Title case. Include an acknowledgement of not more than 100 words here, if any. Acknowledgements may be addressed to sponsors, reviewers, editors, and so on. Please be clear and concise. Avoid informal expressions. Separate contact details with semi-colons.



Jannatul Islam1, Dylan Odd2 & Temitope Onifade3

  1. Lecturer, Department of Political Science, World University of Bangladesh; and Teaching Assistant, Environmental Policy Institute, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada.

jislam@grenfell.mun.ca; dalim001@gmail.com

  1. Teaching Assistant, Environmental Policy Institute, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada.


  1. Lecturer, Department of Resource Management, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada.

tonifade@grenfell.mun.ca; temitopeonifade@gmail.com




The authors would like to express their gratitude to Dr. Gabriela Sabau and  Dr. Ivan Emke for reading and commenting on the draft of the manuscript.



The manuscript is the main text of the submission. It should include the following: The title, Abstract, Keywords, The text i.e. the introduction, body, and conclusion of the work, and References.

  • Title

Follow the guidelines laid out in title page section.

  • Abstract

The manuscript should contain an abstract of between 100 and 250 words. This should follow the title of the work. The heading, “Abstract”, should be bold, title case, and centralized. The abstract itself should be typed in lower case and italicised.

The main purpose of the abstract is to inform the readers quickly of the nature and results of the study on which the submission is based. The abstract should normally provide information on purpose (mandatory), design/methodology/approach (mandatory), findings (mandatory), research limitations/implications (if applicable), practical implications (if applicable), and social, economic and environmental implications (if applicable). Its presentation should be as abstract as possible, merely expressing the content in a manner that detaches the writing from the writer and the paper.



Many jurisdictions experience series of politically driven unrest despite being ruled by law. Important lingering questions that need answers relate to whether or not the presence of equality laws sufficiently expresses the equality component of the rule of law. This need answers because research commonly traces civil unrest to incidences of inequality and discrimination. Answering the question necessitates reviewing the equality component of the rule of law. Not only equality before the law but also equality in the society is necessary in a society ruled by law. Stakeholders should express the equality principle not only in constitutions and other sources of law, but also state practices. This conclusion offers some useful lessons to developing jurisdictions.

  • Keywords

Please provide four to six key words. This should appear immediately after the abstract. Introduce the title ‘keyword’ in bold title case, but type key words in lower case, non-bold and italicized. Flush the abstract to the left. The keywords should be words that describe your research. They are for the purpose of indexing. They should not be too long. Introduce keywords with a colon, and separate them with semi-colons.


Keywords: worldwide holistic sustainable development; human dignity; poverty alleviation; human rights; justice

  • The Text

The text should be in black fonts. It should be written in prose. State acronyms or abbreviations in full before using them i.e. state the full name and put the abbreviation in a bracket when you mention it the first time, then you can use the abbreviation after the first full mention. Numbers from one to ten should be in words, while numbers above ten should be in Arabic numerals e.g. 11 business ventures controlled ten commercial outfits, while 22 other ventures considered….

Paragraphs should be in indented format. Paragraphs should be created with one inch tab. New paragraphs should start on the lines that follow where previous paragraphs end. No manual spaces should be created within lines, sentences, or paragraphs. See example under ‘in-text citation’ below.

  • Headings

Authors can use up to four headings.

  • The first heading should be title case, bold, centralised, and Arabic numbered.
  • The second level should be title case, bold, flushed left, and be in capital English letters. Introduce the second level with one sentence or more. Use capital English letters for numbering.
  • The third level should be sentence case, bold, flushed left, and numbered in small Roman numerals
  • The fourth level should be non-bold, title case, flushed left, and numbered in small English letters


  1. Introduction

Many stakeholders now discuss issues concerning how science and business interact in the twenty-first century. Many of these stakeholders consider………………………………………………

  1. The Business Sector

This section discusses the arrangement of the corporate sector in Canada. It discusses the financial and non-financial sectors.

  1. Financial Sector
  2. Banking corporations
  3. Merchant Banks

b.Commercial Banks

  1. Insurance outfits
  2. Big Insurers
  3. Medium Insurers
  4. Non-Financial
  5. i. Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs)
  6. Local NGOs
  7. International NGOs
  • Symbols

Use standard format of symbols known to the field of study

  • Tables and graphs

Tables and graphs should appear as annexations, not within the text. Create a section entitled “Appendix” with title case, bolded and centralized, after the References, and add tables in this section here. State numbers when referring to tables in the Appendix.

  • Referencing
    • In-text citation

Use in-text citation within the body of the text where you refer to a scholar, providing the last name of the author, year of publication, and specific page where applicable. Where there are many authors, write only two of the authors alongside the year and specific page where applicable. Do not insert a comma between the author’s name and the year, but separate the page number and the year with a colon. Where you mention the author’s name within the sentence already, write only the year and the page number in parenthesis where applicable. Where you mention the name of the author and the year in the sentence already, write only the page number in parenthesis. Where you cite works by different authors, separate each work by a semi-colon.


Some scholars have commented on the prospects Nigeria has for solar energy production (Idris et al. 2013; Vincent-Akpu 2012). Nigeria lies within a high sunshine belt and as a result, solar radiation is fairly well distributed (Idris et al. 2013). Idris and others (2013: 12) estimates that the annual average of total solar radiation varies from about 12.6 MJ/m per day in the coastal latitude to about 25.2 MJ/m2 per day in the far North. Vincent-Akpu (2012: 3) shows that there is an average solar radiation of about 19.8 MJm –2 day-1 and average sunshine hours of 6hrs per day. Solar radiation intensities range from 3.5-7.0 KWhm per day and sunshine duration ranges from 4.0 to 9.0 hours per day (Idris et al. 2013: 12). Uzoma et al. (2011:1) show that if solar collectors could cover 1% of Nigeria’s land area, Nigeria would generate 1850 x103 GWh of solar electricity per year.

  • Complete list of References

References should contain as full details as possible. List only references that you use in the text. For the reference list, write out the names of all authors: last names and initials. Do not abbreviate document names, whether of books, journals or other materials. Use title case for non-human names. The first line of each reference should be flushed left, while second and subsequent lines should have one inch indentation.




Last name, initials. (year). Title of book in italics. City of Publication, Country of publication: Publisher.

Chiang, C. L. (1968). Introduction to stochastic processes in biometrics. New York, US: Wiley.


Chapter in edited books:


Last name, initials. (year). Title of chapter. In: Initials of editor. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Title of book in italics (page range). city of publication, country of publication: publisher.

Kabir, M. and Rob, A.K.U. (1990). Fertility and its proximate determinants. In: M. Badrud Duza (Ed.), South Asian study if population policy and programmes (pp. 3-16). Dhaka, Bangladesh: Concise Press.


Electronic books with DOI

Last name, initials. (year). Title of book in italics (web source). DOI

Onifade, T.T. (2014). Pragmatic functionalist rule of law (Adobe Digital Editions version). Doi: 10.1036/ 10765896432


Electronic books without DOI

Last name, initials. (year). Title of book in italics (web source). URL without

Onifade, T.T. (2014). Pragmatic functionalist rule of law (Adobe Digital Editions version). Retrieved from http://www.hsdni.org/resources.


Corporate author books

Name of institution (year). Title of publication in italics (edition). City of Publication, Country: Last name, first name of author where applicable.

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington DC, US: Author.



Whole Issue:

Name of author, initials (Editors abbreviated). (year). Title of publication. Name of journal in italics, volume, page range.

Islam, J., & Onifade, T.T. (Eds.). (2014) Worldwide holistic sustainable development. Worldwide Holistic Sustainable Development Series, 3, 2-20.


Article in Issue:

Name of author, initials. (year). Title of publication. Name of Journal, volume, page range.

Lesthaeghe, R. and Surkyn, J. (1988). Cultural dynamics and economics theories of fertility change. Population and Development Review, 14(1), 1-46.


Internet Sources

Name of author, initials. (year). Title of publication. Retrieved from URL

Vincent-Akpu, I. (2012). Renewable energy potentials in Nigeria. Retrieved from http://www.iaia.org/conferences/iaia12/Final_Paper_Review.aspx?AspxAutoDetectCookiesSupport=1#.


Where there is any doubt as to how to reference a material, please see one of the articles in the latest issue of the journal. For referencing materials not discussed in this guideline, please apply the general principles of the APA style. See the link http://www.apastyle.org/ and http://www.proof-reading-services.org/guide/.



All manuscripts submitted to the journal are first reviewed by the Editors. After going through this stage, it then passes to experts for a double-blind peer review. After peer review, the manuscript will be sent back to the authors with recommendation for necessary revision and finalization. The final submission must take place within three clear months after a paper is sent back for revision and finalisation. Submission of a manuscript to the journal is taken to indicate the author’s commitment to publish it in the journal; submission does not however guarantee that the manuscript would be published.


Because the journal is open access, all articles published in JWWHSD are subject to a subscription of US $ 50. The money is to help defray the cost of publication while enhancing the goals of the organization. Authors with reputable scholarship that have good reasons can make applications for waiving the cost. The final decision to waive rests with the editorial board.


Authors retain their copyrights. Accordingly, authors are responsible for the content of their submissions. Authors will be asked to sign a copyright form before articles are published.